Easier, Better, Faster, Stronger: Word 2016 Styles Tools

Word 2016 for MacWe posted back in September that Word 2016 was finally available for Mac Users. It’s also available for PC users now. We’ve had some time to use this new version and found that it makes using Styles significantly easier with a few simple changes.

Why do styles matter?

  • Easier, accurate formatting
  • Bulk changes for formatting
  • Quickly review & restructure
  • Built in Table of Contents options

Word 2016 Styles Pane

Most of the improved style tools are in the Styles Pane accessible from the Home menu:

Style Pane Button

This tool gives you a quick way to preview the styles available, whether or not they appear in your home ribbon, and it stays open as you navigate the rest of your editing tools.

Top Section: Current Style

This top section makes it easy to bulk select text, create new custom styles, or modify the ones you’ve used (or want to use) in your document. See the drop-down arrow for all of these options:

Word 2016 - current style options

Center Section: “Apply a Style” List

If your list doesn’t include the styles you want to use, check the “List:” drop down at the bottom to switch between “Recommended,” “Styles in Use,” “In Current Document,” and “All Styles.”

Bottom Section: Styles Guides

Documents that have been edited by multiple users may have a lot more built into the document. If you want to preview where these are applied, the “Show style guides” checkbox at the bottom will turn on the rainbow markings in the example above.

“Show direct formatting guides” will put highlighted boxes around the blocks of inline text that have special formatting.

Customizing Styles

(Note: Even if you’re using an older version of Word, these tips will still apply, though the view may be different)

1. Start with your Normal style if you want to change the default font or line spacing.


2. Use the “Modify” command to access more options – in the drop down from the style pane or by using “right click”:

word 2016 - modify style settings


3. To get to options like more precise line spacing or outline level (for Table of Contents customizations), check the Format drop down to go to Paragraph Settings:

Word 2016 - style format menus

Compliance Concerns

Court rules dictate formatting very precisely for briefs and other legal documents. If you review these, you can build them into your default styles and be sure each edit you make will be accurate without fiddling with formatting.

Example Court Rule

IL Supreme Court Rule 341 (Amended December 9, 2015, eff. January 1, 2016)

The text must be double-spaced; however, headings may be single-spaced. Margins must be at least 1½ inch on the left side and 1 inch on the other three sides. Briefs shall be safely and securely bound on the left side in a manner that does not obscure the text. Quotations of two or more lines in length may be single-spaced; however, lengthy quotations are not favored and should be included only where they will aid the court’s comprehension of the argument. Footnotes are discouraged but, if used, may be single-spaced. Rule 344(b) prescribes 10-point type on 11-point slugs, instead of the 11-point type used in the body.

What to check:

  • Normal: is it exactly double-spaced? What is the font size for the ‘body text’?
  • Headings: Are they single-spaced?
  • Footnotes: make sure it uses a different style than Normal so you can change the spacing and font size.

Don’t have Word 2016 yet?

Chicago-Kent students (or staff & faculty) can request this upgrade through the ITS help desk or install it on home devices through this page using your kentlaw login: http://mso.kentlaw.iit.edu/. One reason to have ITS help you: you may otherwise end up with two versions of Word on your computer.

Quick Guide for Word 2016:

An overview of new features from Microsoft:

Download (PDF, Unknown)

Further Examples:

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Historical Dead-Letter Laws in Chicago

Did you that it was once (not so very long ago) illegal in the city of Chicago for a child to climb a tree?  Thanks to a poorly-drafted ordinance against “flagpole sitting,” this was the case.  How many of us have conveniently avoided traffic in the Loop by taking Lower Wacker Drive?  That, too, was technically illegal, due to an obsolete law prohibiting  vehicles from driving in tunnels under city streets.  As of January 27, 1974, female bartenders were prohibited, as was the public display of any flags other than the U.S. Flag, state flags or the flags of friendly nations (so, a female bartender in a sports bar displaying flags or pennants of local sports teams would have been public enemy #1).

Creative Commons photo courtesy of Duke University Archives

Creative Commons photo courtesy of Duke University Archives

All of that changed on January 28, 1974, when a group of Chicago aldermen petitioned the city council to repeal these and other obsolete and/or nonsensical laws that were still on the books.

What prompted the sudden push to update the city’s laws? One alderman stated that that it was, “our contribution to the grand old tradition of spring cleaning.”

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The Tablet Wars Heat Up: iPad Pro vs Microsoft Surface

Surface Pro 4Lawyers love their mobile tech.  A recent lawyer technology survey showed that 50% of attorneys use a tablet and 90% use smart phones.  But as useful as they are, phones and tablets haven’t been ideal replacements for desktop computers, or even laptops.

In the last few months however, the legal tech landscape has changed.  Microsoft introduced the Surface 3 in 2014, and followed up with the even more powerful Surface 4 last fall.  Apple, not to be left behind, started shipping the full-size iPad Pro last November.

iPad ProLawyers have praised both technologies.  The iPhone JD blog was very excited when the iPad Pro was announced, and a tech writer for Above the Law loves the Surface Pro 4.   But are either replacements for a full desktop or laptop computer?  If they aren’t yet, we’re certainly getting close.

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Test your pronunciation “uh-KYOO-muhn”

Pruyn Pronounced Prine

An amazing pronunciation guide in Philly.

If there is one thing that lawyers, law professors, law librarians, and law students can all agree on, it’s that we all hate to be wrong and love to be right.  That is why I bring you the ABA’s two quizzes on pronunciation, one for each half of the alphabet.  First of all, they are very difficult and fun to send to friends/enemies.  Second, the quizzes force you to think about what it means to be right.  These quizzes come from Bryan Garner’s ABA Journal column on legal language.

First half of the alphabet

Second half of the alphabet

Now that you’ve taken the quizzes and you’re extremely angry at me for introducing you to them, let’s think about what this means.  Take the example in the title of this post.  The quiz asks you how to pronounce “acumen.”  Is it “uh-KYOO-muhn” or “AK-yuh-muhn?”  According to the quiz, it’s the former.  I can honestly say that I have never heard it pronounced that way.  Miriam-Webster.com lists that pronunciation as the first pronunciation, but does have “AK-yuh-muhn” as an alternative.  The American Heritage Dictionary (which I trust most for usage), however, states that:

The pronunciation . . . with stress on the second syllable, is an older, traditional pronunciation reflecting the word’s Latin origin. The Anglicized pronunciation with stress on the first syllable . . . was accepted as standard by the entire Usage Panel in the 1997 survey and was the preferred pronunciation of two thirds of the Panelists. The older pronunciation was considered unacceptable by 40 percent of the Panel, suggesting that eventually this pronunciation will fall into disuse.

If that was the case in 1997, I think I’m prepared to keep saying “AK-yuh-muhn.”

But even if the other pronunciation is technically correct, does that mean you should use it?  Although Garner seems to endorse the pronunciations in the quiz in his ABA Journal column, in his entry on pronunciation in the second edition of his Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, Garner advises attorneys to “follow the pronunciation current among educated speakers in one’s region.” (p. 702).  Then, (and we’ll ignore his bias here), Garner’s dictionary recommends checking a dictionary for the pronunciation of a word you’ve never heard.

It looks like the best advice is to look up the word, ask around, and listen.  And, of course, be willing to be wrong every once in a while.  You may have to trade being right for being understood.  But what do I know?  I can’t even pronounce “kudos.”

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Looking Back at Chicago-Kent Stories

As another year winds to a close, now is a good time to reflect on our accomplishments in 2015.  After Chicago-Kent celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2013, 2015 was the year for our parent institution, Illinois Institute of Technology, to celebrate its own 125th birthday.

In honor of these impressive milestones, we have highlighted stories our Archivist Jona Whipple has shared from a wide array of Chicago-Kent leaders and alumni, known both for their service to the school and for their pursuits and accolades earned after leaving this institution.

Take a moment to look back at these stories from the last year and beyond:

1897: Marshall Davis Ewell 

Marshall Davis Ewell was one of the pioneers of legal education in Chicago, and the first president and dean of Kent Law School, which would become Chicago-Kent College of Law after merging with the Chicago College of Law in 1900.

1900: Rex Beach

Rex (Ellingwood) Beach attended Chicago College of Law from 1896 to 1897 and Kent College of Law from 1899 to 1900. What did he do in the two years he took off from studying law? He mined for gold in the Yukon.

He went on to compete in the 1904 Summer Olympics, write travel stories, publish bestselling novels and have 14 of his novels turned into movies. Learn more about his many adventures and achievements:

1908: Bertha Bauer

In 1906, Bertha Baur enrolled in night classes at Chicago-Kent so she could keep her position in the postmaster’s office. By the time she graduated, she was the highest salaried woman employed by the federal government.

She was also known for speaking out for women’s right to vote and running campaigns for mayor of Chicago and congress.

1916: Lowell Thomas

Lowell Thomas at microphone; Marist College B&W photo 1522.11.b.

Lowell Thomas at microphone; Marist College B&W photo 1522.11.b.

Lowell Thomas taught public speaking at Chicago-Kent from 1912-1914, then received his law degree in 1916. He also lead the way in journalism over a  long career that included print interviews, early documentary films, the first nightly radio news program, the first televised nightly news broadcast and the first ever remote battery-powered broadcasts.

Learn more about his global travels and work with everyone from Clarence Darrow to T.E. Lawrence (also known as Lawrence of Arabia) to the Dalai Lama:

Clyde Todd, Class of 1920 Composite1920: Clyde Todd

Chicago-Kent alum Clyde Todd was one of the fortunate soldiers to return to some sense of normalcy after World War I. He wrote about his military service for the 1919 issue of The Transcript, you can find excerpts of his memories:

1924: Minna Schmidt

Minna Schmidt came to America in 1866 and graduated from Chicago-Kent Law in 1924 when she was 58. Her intriguing and unique life story included two Chicago World’s Fairs and a career as an accomplished “costumologist,” which lead to her role founding the College of Scientific Costuming

 Century of Progree Poster1933: Chicago World’s Fair

You may have seen signs for the “Library of International Relations” around our building. Did you know this collection once had a role in the 1933 World’s Fair’s “Story Cove”?

Eloise ReQua, founder of the LIR, wanted to reach out to children to foster an international perspective on the world and what remains of this exhibit in our current collection:

To learn more about notable Chicago-Kent alumni, see the list of the school’s 125 Alumni of Distinction, compiled in honor of Chicago-Kent’s 125th anniversary in 2013.

Happy Holidays, everyone.  See you in 2016!

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Looking for something to do over the winter break?


Photo by Michael Kappel

The winter break is a great opportunity to take advantage of all Chicago has to offer. Warm up in one of the city’s botanical gardens, browse for unique holiday gifts (and craft brews) at a locally sourced market, check out some live music, visit one of the city’s lesser-known museums, or get out of town altogether and discover the art, food, and museums of nearby Milwaukee.

Holiday events: Waveland Bowl’s Hanukkah celebration Lights and Strikes promises champagne, cocktails and, of course, bowling (Dec. 7). Traditional Christmas spirit abounds at the Christkindlmarket (through Dec. 24) and Millennium Park’s Caroling at the Cloud Gate. For something more irreverent, A Q Brother’s Christmas Carol sends up Dickens’ classic tale as “the ghosts of Hip-hop Past, Present, and Future lead Scrooge on a journey of rhythm, rhyme, and redemption”. The Lincoln Park ZooLights, seemingly more excessive each year, runs through Jan. 3.

Shopping: Looking for unique holiday gifts? The organizers of Dose Market have curated the best local food, fashion, and more for Holidose (Dec. 13). Sauced Night Market at Logan Square’s Emporium Arcade promises shopping with a side of craft beer (Dec. 15).

Art & culture: Take advantage of your student discount at the Art Institute (where the Thorne miniature rooms are currently decorated for Christmas, the Chinese New Year, and Hanukkah). Admission is free at University of Chicago’s SMART Museum of Art and the newly opened, contemporary art spot the Stony Island Arts Bank. Along with the largest, most complete T. Rex ever found and an impressive collection of mummies, the Field Museum is now hosting The Greeks: Agamemnon to Alexander the Great.


Photo by Senor Codo

Activities: Warm up with tropical palms and orchids at the (free!) Lincoln Park Conservatory, or catch the Green Line to the Garfield Park Conservatory for their Solarise: a sea of all colors exhibit. If the cold doesn’t faze you, join the ice skaters at Millennium Park.

Film: Adler After Dark is hosting an unofficial Star Wars: the force awakens movie release party (Dec. 17). The Music Box Theatre is showing several Christmas-themed films (including National Lampoon’s Christmas Vacation and a sing-along White Christmas).

New Year’s Eve and beyond: Chicago is amping up its New Year’s celebration this year with Chi-town rising, featuring three stages of live music and a big fireworks display along the Chicago River (Dec. 31). The Tomorrow Never Knows music fest will include rising talent at a variety of local venues (Jan. 13-17).

Need a break from Chicago? Milwaukee is a quick and easy train or car ride away and offers plenty of attractions for a day-trip or weekend. The famed Milwaukee Art Museum, open after a recent renovation, is just minutes away from  an array of shops, art galleries, and restaurants in the walkable Historic Third Ward neighborhood. The Harley Davidson Museum tells the story of America’s iconic motorcycle and includes an impressive gallery of bikes. And, of course, a visit to Brew City isn’t complete without a brewery tour—take your pick. There are 14 Amtrak trains daily between Chicago and Milwaukee; click here for the full schedule and ticket options.

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Tech You Should Know: PDF Skills for Law Students and Lawyers

PDF Icon

PDFs seem like they should be intuitive to use – just click them open and you’re done, right?  You’ve probably already noticed that many legal documents are PDFs, including articles from legal databases or maybe even the online version of your casebook.  But while basic PDFs are easy to use, lawyers often need to take advantage of more advanced features.

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Of Class Actions and Cranberries

Little berries, big business.

Little berries, big business.

The Chicago-Kent Law Library is here this week to give you some dinner conversation for the upcoming holiday.  The word for you to casually drop into conversation on Thursday is “monopsonization.”

Every Thanksgiving, Americans buy (and eat) incredible amounts of food, especially seasonal staples like pumpkin, turkey, and cranberries.  According to Ocean Spray (they of the cranberries), Americans will consume 80 million pounds of cranberries during the week of Thanksgiving.  No matter if you’re on Team Jelly from the Can or Team Fresh, that’s a lot of money for Ocean Spray, the nation’s leading producer of cranberry products.

The big question being litigated in Massachusetts right now is whether that sweet/sour cranberry market is fair.  Ocean Spray is a cooperative of cranberry growers which allows it to obtain, process, and market the products jointly.  Cranberry growers have contracts to deliver their fruit to Ocean Spray to be processed.  Starting in 2006, Ocean Spray divided the growers into an A Pool and a B Pool.  The B Pool growers get their cranberries processed into “non-valued added, commodity foods” and receive a cut of those sales.  A Pool cranberries keep riding that gravy train (if you’ll permit the mixed Thanksgiving metaphor) of higher-margin goodies like the Ocean Spray-branded juice that you might mix with vodka for a pre-dinner cocktail.

Some B Pool members and independent growers (those few cranberry growers who are not members of the Ocean Spray cooperative) filed a class action against Ocean Spray alleging that Ocean Spray is, among other things, fixing an artificially low price for cranberry juice concentrate and forcing the independent growers to join Ocean Spray or shrivel up like a Craisin.  The allegation is that this amounts to monopsonization, an illegal attempt to consolidate the market not into one seller (that would be a monopoly), but into one buyer.  Amazon operates another alleged monopsony when it gets books from publishers for sale on its site.  Creating a monopsony by pushing the independent growers into the B Pool or out of business entirely leaves Ocean Spray without competition from growers who would sell their cranberries to other cranberry processors.

Litigation is on-going.  Pass the monopsony sauce.

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The Wayback Machine is Moving Forward


The Internet Archive is the closest thing we have to a backup of the Internet.  Founded by Brewster Kahle in 1996, the Internet Archive is a non-profit organization with the bold mission statement of providing “universal access to all knowledge.”  It provides free access to collections of archived websites, software, games, music, images and public domain books. The most popular part of the Internet Archive is probably the “Wayback Machine” service, which allows users to insert a web address and discover if the Internet Archive contains earlier versions of that webpage.  There are currently more than 445 billion webpage captures in the archive.

It was recently announced that the Internet Archive has received a $1.9 million grant from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation that will allow for a rebuild of the Wayback Machine’s code.  According to press announcements, this grant will allow a very substantial upgrade of the service, making it even more useful for the researcher.  Some of the planned improvements from this grant are:

  • Keyword searching for websites.  While this will not be keyword searching of the Internet Archive itself, it will free researchers from having to know exact URL’s of a website they wish to find.
  • Optimization of the crawling capabilities of the Wayback Machine.  Currently about one billion webpages are captured a week, but the new code will permit an even greater number to be archived.
  • Improving the playback capability of files found on media-rich and interactive websites.
  • Battling “link rot” by partnering with other services to identify broken links on their sites and replacing them with links to archived pages in the Internet Archive.

Lawyers have made use of the Internet Archive in interesting ways, most notably as a method of proving of how a website appeared on a certain date.  There are numerous reported decisions where attorneys have attempted to introduce print-outs of pages produced through the Wayback Machine.  This has led to interesting evidentiary battles centered upon hearsay objections, proper authentication and the “best evidence” rule.  Not all courts have accepted Wayback Machine results into evidence, but for certain categories of use, such as proving “prior art” in patent cases, courts have been inclined to accept this form of evidence.

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Three things to do with a case

previously read

read this?

So you found a case.  First of all, one hopes that you found this case using a secondary source.  Why?  Why the librarian obsession with secondary sources?  Because secondary sources explain the law.  Judges write cases in large part to dispose of a piece of litigation and to communicate something about the law to attorneys and other judges.  If any of them are thinking about whether their opinion does a good job of explaining the law to law students, it has to be way down the list of priorities.  A secondary source will explain an area of law and cite the relevant cases.

Now that you’ve found a relevant case, what will you do with it?  Cut and paste a quote and move on?  No way!  Here are the three things you need to do with a relevant case before you move on.

1.  Look at the cases your case cites.

2. Look at the cases that cite your case (KeyCite or Shepardize the case).

3.  Look at the cases that share a relevant headnote.

Once you’ve done all that, the process can certainly start over again.  However, at some point, you’ll notice that all of the cases keep coming back to one or two cases.  You’ll get a sense of how your case is different and everything will start coming together.  Does that mean you’re done?  Probably.  Knowing when you’re done is a lot of things.  In some ways, it’s a matter of comfort with your own skills.  If reading three more cases makes you feel more confident and you have time, you should do it.

What’s the absolute final thing to do with a case?  Remember that you found it in the first place.  Keeping track of your research, whether by using folders, notes, or just relying on your search history, means saving time and never having to say, “Did I read this already?”

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